Monthly Archives: September 2016

Elizabeth Collins Lee: 20th Century Nurse and WWI Heroine


Photo of a nurse in WWI Army Nurse Corp uniform. Courtesy of the U.S. Army Medical Department, Office of Medical History.

While sharing stories of Richard and Elizabeth Lee with visitors to Sully Historic Site, I’ve become curious about the lives of the Lee children and their descendants.  Using historical resources available online, I’ve discovered a treasury of information.  Particularly notable  is a female descendent whose life reflected the tradition of public service prevalent in the Lee family.

Elizabeth Collins Lee was the great granddaughter of Richard Bland Lee and his wife, also named Elizabeth Collins Lee. Richard Bland Lee was Northern Virginia’s first representative to Congress, and Sully was built during his ownership of the land. Elizabeth, his great granddaughter, was the granddaughter of Richard’s second son, Zaccheus Collins Lee. She was born in Mobile, Alabama, on July 31, 1870 to Zaccheus’s son, Richard Henry Lee, and Isabelle George Wilson.

Richard Henry Lee was a Confederate veteran of the Civil War. Historic records show that in the summer of Elizabeth’s birth, he was married and employed as a retail grocery merchant. By 1880, Richard and Isabelle had returned to their hometown of Baltimore, Maryland, and little Elizabeth had two younger brothers, six-year-old Richard Henry and two-month-old Joseph Collins. Elizabeth’s father died when the children were all quite young in March 1883, and they lost their mother nine years later in September 1892.

As a girl, Elizabeth attended the Baltimore Academy of the Visitation, a Catholic school for girls. She graduated in 1896 from the University of Maryland Faculty of Physics Training School for Nurses in Baltimore. Established in 1889, it was one of the nation’s early formal nursing programs and was originally directed by Louisa Parsons, a graduate of the Florence Nightingale Training School.  The school was located at University Hospital at Lombard and Green Streets, the present day location of the University of Maryland Health Sciences Library. Elizabeth also pursued graduate studies at Johns Hopkins in psychiatry, a very new field of medicine at the time.

A 1904 city directory and the 1910 Federal Census both show that Elizabeth was employed as a nurse and living in Baltimore. By 1910, Elizabeth had become the first University of Maryland School of Nursing graduate employed by the Baltimore City Health Department, joining its newly formed Tuberculosis Division. She joined the Red Cross on Nov. 2, 1911, and was later described in a University Hospital article about alumnae as “an ardent suffragist.”

A postcard photo of the Maryland University Hospital, where Elizabeth Collins Lee received her nursing training. It is postmarked from Baltimore, MD on Oct. 6, 1909. The postcard shows details such as utility lines, the tracks on the street, and people in period clothing.

A postcard photo of the Maryland University Hospital, where Elizabeth Collins Lee received her nursing training. It is postmarked from Baltimore, MD on Oct. 6, 1909. The postcard shows details such as utility lines, the tracks on the street, and people in period clothing.

A memorial published about Elizabeth following her death in 1927 described a heroic time for her from 1915 to 1920. In 1915, shortly after the outbreak of World War I, Elizabeth joined the American branch of Queen Mary’s Needlework Guild to provide first aid and emergency services, giving “every moment of her time, and all her strength, — sewing and laboring weekly until she was sent overseas, June 11th, 1918, and after her return, until August 1st, 1920.”

Elizabeth tried to volunteer as a nurse for the British Expeditionary Forces in June 1917, but after receiving all her inoculations and purchasing her own overseas wardrobe, she learned that she had not been selected. However, by May of the following year, she was enlisted in the Army Nurse Corps and was on duty at Base Hospital No. 45 in Blois, France on July 1, 1918.  She volunteered for field service, and on July 15, 1918 was assigned to Evacuation Hospital No. 4 with the 42nd Infantry Division. She remained with them until Dec. 1, 1918, when Evacuation Hospital No. 4 was ordered with the Army of Occupation to Treves, Germany. During its time in France, the 42nd Division participated in six major campaigns and incurred 1-out-of-16 casualties suffered by the American Army during the war.

On Nov. 2, 1918, just days before the Armistice would end fighting on the Western Front, Evacuation Hospital No. 4 was shelled by enemy artillery. Elizabeth was credited with carrying 11 stretchers to ambulances while under fire and helping three other men to safety.  For her bravery, on Dec. 12, 1918, Elizabeth and 38 other nurses with whom she had served received a Citation for Heroic Conduct from the command of U.S. Army General John J. Pershing, Commander of the American Expeditionary Forces.

Elizabeth contracted influenza during the devastating Influenza Pandemic of 1918–1919 in which millions of people died worldwide and returned to Base Hospital 15 in Chaumont, France. She was relieved from service on April 26, 1919.


The springs where Elizabeth was honored for her military services and her DAR service in 1924. Photo by Megan Johnson.

Details about Elizabeth’s life following WWI are elusive, but there are some clues that she continued a very active life. She was a member of numerous professional nursing, service and patriotic organizations, and she served them in leadership roles.  On June 5, 1924, Elizabeth was honored by the “Patriotic Societies of which Miss Lee was a member” when a bronze tablet commemorating her WWI service, as well as her service as Historian of the Francis Scott Key Chapter of the DAR, was unveiled at the newly restored and enclosed natural springs of “Ye Coole Springs” at Charlotte Hall, St. Mary’s County, Maryland.  It was an appropriate honor, as this was the location of one of the first hospitals of the American Colonies in the early 18th century.


Grave of Elizabeth Collins Lee, Arlington National Cemetery. Photo by Jen Snoots.

Grave of Elizabeth Collins Lee, Arlington National Cemetery. Photo by Jen Snoots.

Elizabeth passed away after a long illness on May 15, 1927, and was buried in Arlington National Cemetery. Through at least 1992, The University of Maryland School of Nursing continued to honor her years of nursing service with the “Elizabeth Collins Lee Award” for the nursing student graduating with the second-highest scholastic average.








  1. Deaths: Elizabeth Collins Lee. (1927, August). American Journal of Nursing, 27(8), 699 – 700. Retrieved March 13, 2016, from http://
  2. Lee, Elizabeth Collins. (n.d.). World War I Service Record. Maryland in the World War 1917 – 1918 and Naval Service Records in Two Volumes and Case of Maps Volume II. Retrieved from online database.
  3. Lee, Elizab C. (1904). Baltimore, Maryland City Directory, 1904. Retrieved from online database.
  4. Lee, Elizabeth C. (1910). 1910 United States Federal Census, Baltimore Ward 14, Maryland. Retrieved from online database.
  5. Lee, Elizabeth C. (1927). U.S. National Cemetery Interment Control Forms, 1928-1962. Retrieved from online database.
  6. Lee, Richard Henry. (1920, July 29). U.S., Sons of the American Revolution Membership Applications, 1889-1970, Vol. 172. Retrieved from online database. 4
  7. Lee, Richard H. (1870). 1870 United States Federal Census, Mobile Ward 4, Alabama. Retrieved from online database.
  8. Lee, Richard H. (1880). 1880 United States Federal Census, Baltimore, Maryland. Retrieved from online database.
  9. Marine, Harriet P. (1927, September). Tribute to Elizabeth Collins Lee. The University Hospital Nurses Alumnae Bulletin, 7 (1), 3-10. Retrieved March 3, 2016, from
  10. New York State Division of Military and Naval Affairs (NYS DMNA). (2016). History of the “Rainbow.” Retrieved May 21, 2016 from
  11. Nursing News and Announcements. (1919, August). American Journal of Nursing, 19 (11), pp. 883 – 903. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, pub. Retrieved May 25, 2016 from
  12. Obituary: Miss Elizabeth C. Lee Dies in Hospital At Age Of 53. (1927, May 16). The Sun, p. 4. 13. Baltimore, Maryland. Retrieved from Proquest online database.
  13. School of Nursing, University of Maryland. (1990 – 1992). Scholastic Honors for Graduates. Catalog, 1990 – 1992, p 18. Retrieved June 25, 2016 from–records/verifications/School-of-Nursing-Catalog -1990-1992-web.pdf.
  14. Timeline of Nursing History, University of Maryland School of Nursing 1889 – 2013. (2013). Retrieved March 3, 2016, from https://
  15. Warren, K. (2010, Spring). The Healing Waters of “Ye Coole Springs of St. Maries.” Southern Maryland, Vol. 12(1). Retrieved May 21, 2016, from
  16. Army Nurse Corps History (image of woman in WWI Army Nurse Corps uniform, 1917) “Army Nurse Corps Uniforms and Insignia.” Photograph retrieved from U.S. Army Medical Department, Office of Medical History ( Image used by permission.
  17. Johnson, Megan (photograph of enclosed spring at Ye Coole Springs, MD, July 1, 2010). “Taking the waters at Ye Coole Springs.” Photograph retrieved from “Write Meg!” blog (  Image used by permission.
  18. Maryland University Hospital, Baltimore, MD (postcard photograph of hospital, postmarked Oct. 6, 1909).   A.C. Bosselman & Co., New York, NY. Postcard from the private collection of Nanette T. Meo.
  19. Snoot, Jen. (Jan. 8, 2008). Find a Grave database (htttp:// Photograph retrieved from memorial page 15417740 for Elizabeth C. Collins (1870 – 1927).  Image used by permission.
  20. Reading, Alice Matilda (Portrait of Elizabeth Collins Lee, 20th Century).  Virginia Historical Society, Accession Number 1934.25.  Image used permission of VHS.



 Author Nanette Tippett Meo is a volunteer at Sully Historic Site.


Toad, Turtle or Snake? Get Out and Vote!

Vote for Your Favorite Herp!

It’s the most cold-blooded election you’ve ever known. One candidate is slimy, another is scaly, the third just hides when things get tough.

It’s a run-off among the American toad, the Eastern box turtle, and the Eastern ratsnake!

And you get to pick the winner.

Herpetology is the study of amphibians and reptiles, and we’ve picked three of Fairfax County’s most common and popular ones for this election. And this election is open to all ages. No ID required.

All staffed Resource Management Division sites, along with Cub Run RECenter, are polling places as you Vote for Your Favorite Herp now through November 8, 2016. That means you can cast ballots at Hidden Oaks Nature Center, Hidden Pond Nature Center, Riverbend Park, Huntley Meadows Park, Ellanor C. Lawrence Park, Green Spring Gardens, Frying Pan Farm Park, Sully Historic Site, Colvin Run Mill Historic Site, or at Cub Run.

There are ballots and a ballot box at each site, and you’ll see campaign posters on display. Sites also will have bookmarks that highlight fun facts about each animal and that list the free programs that will take place at the campaign headquarters.

Hidden Oaks Nature Center in Annandale is campaign headquarters for the Eastern box turtle. Huntley Meadows Park in Alexandria is home base for the American toad. Riverbend Park is Great Falls is throwing its support behind the Eastern ratsnake.

The candidates will appear in person at campaign rallies from 2 p.m. to 3 p.m. on September 24 at Huntley Meadows, from 2:45 p.m. to 3:45 p.m. October 16 at Riverbend, and 2:45 p.m. to 3:45 p.m. November 6 at Hidden Oaks.

This is a campaign to make you smarter. You’ll increase your understanding of and appreciation for reptiles and amphibians. And, although we are running this parallel to this fall’s national election, we must point out that it’s for fun and there is no intention whatsoever of mirroring any actual human candidate, past or present. Yeah, we know, you’ll think that way because Americans poke fun at politicians. But that is not our intent, so don’t go there. Let’s just have some fun.

To vote, visit any of the balloting sites. You can vote once per visit.

Here are the candidates’ campaign platforms:

American Toad

  1. Most commonly seen amphibian in our area. Favors moist spaces. Hibernates up to three feet underground. Most active in spring, when mating, and in fall when looking for a place to hibernate. Harmless, intriguing chubby creatures.
  2. Has an arsenal of defense strategies. Can ooze a toxin from parotid glands, play dead, inflate to look larger and/or urinate when threatened. Camouflage pattern and coloring adds protection.
  3. A gentle, peace-loving candidate, strong on defense and taking care of problem species (bugs and worms). Weak on population control (lays hundreds of eggs). Plagued with bad public relations regarding the causing of warts and folklore about association with witches.

Eastern Ratsnake

  1. Harmless. Most commonly seen snake. Juveniles are aggressive and often misidentified as the venomous Northern copperhead. Only snake native to Virginia that can be six–feet long.
  2. An excellent climber. Can lay eggs in trees and can eat eggs and baby birds in nests.
  3. A constrictor. Eats a variety of prey, including mice, rats, birds and amphibians.
  4. Adults are gentle unless provoked. Intimidates with its size and its method of eating its prey whole. Bad public relations as being a top predator and incorrectly thought to be venomous. Strongest of the candidates. Fast, lethal reactions toward small mammals, reptiles, birds and amphibians. Great at clearing out mice and rats that carry disease-causing pests (fleas/ticks/lice) and that spread disease through their droppings.

Eastern Box Turtle

  1. Most common terrestrial turtle known. Only local species that can entirely close itself within its shell.
  2. Numbers are down due to being collected for pets and loss of habitat. Lives in moist places such as woodlands and stream valleys.
  3. Longest living of all the candidates, potentially more than 100 years. Diet ranges from dead animals to plants to small animals. Can eat poisonous mushrooms, which will make their own meat toxic.
  4. Perceived as the friendliest of all the candidates. Has a defense-in-place strategy. Traditionally thought to be wise due to their age and slow, steady ways. Lays only a few eggs per year. Population control is not an issue, but rivals challenge its bravery in the face of any adversity.

Vote today! And again tomorrow!


Author Suzanne Holland is the Visitor Services Manager at Hidden Oaks Nature Center in Annandale.